Management Information system is a system which created to process organization’s data. Use of the data here means supporting the routine tasks, evaluation of achievements of the organization, or for decision making by the organization.
- Definition and Characteristics of the MIS
Basically people can discuss information management systems without the computer, but the ability of the computer to make the MIS materialized. The idea of an information system or decision based computer does not mean total automatic. The concept of human systems / machines implies that some tasks should be performed by a man and another done by machines.
SIM commonly known by people as a human / machine integrated system to provide information which support the function of the organization’s operations, management and decision-making processes in an organization. This system use hardware and software, manual procedures, management model, and the decision as well as a database.
The following are characteristics of the SIM in order to get early signals about the existence and condition of MIS in the organization :
1. MIS was structured to help managers at the operational level and the level of control only. Nevertheless SIM can also be a tool for planning for senior staff.
2. MIS is designed to provide daily operational reports that can give the information to control the operation better.
3. MIS is depend on the availability of data on the whole organization, and relies on the flow of information held by the organization.
4. MIS is usually do not have the ability to analyze a problem. Ability to analyze problem is usually in DECISION SUPPORT SYSTEMS.
5. MIS is usually oriented on data that has occurred or data that is going on not the data that will occur, such as Forecasting.
6. MIS also oriented on data within the organization compared to the data from outside the organization. Therefore, the information required by the MIS is already known the format and relatively stable.
7. MIS is usually not as flexible as a form generated reports have been prepared much earlier. Some MIS has the ability to be a manager can create their own reports but actual data manager’s need is already there and has prepared first.
- Development of the concept of SIM
MIS continuously maintained to ensure the system can provide information that is important to the user. The idea of an information system to support management and decision-making have been there before computer exist, which extends the ability of organizations to implement such a system. That abilities expansion so blatant that SIM into something new. Many ideas that are part driver’s license, which developed and evolved from the other sciences. There are 4 areas of basic concepts and the development of systems that track the origin of the concept of MIS:
1. Managerial accounting
2. Management Science
3. Management’s theory
4. Administration of computer
- MIS’s Physical Component
If people want to see an organization’s information systems, it will be shown physical component. A statement about what you do physical components can be answered with a processing function or it could be a system output. This element’s important in understanding the processing system and will therefore be investigated before a framework or structure described. If the purchase of a management information system is typically performed as an automobile or equipment, then the components are delivered to complete the operating system will consist of hardware, software, procedures, operating personnel, and databases.
- Synthetic structures MIS
MIS structure described in two ways: on the basis of management activities and functions of the organization, both design coupled structural concepts will now be synthesized into a SIM stricture. In essence this is a possible conceptual discussion and information systems planning.
MIS is defined as a combination of functional subsystems, each of which is divided into four sections of information processing:
A. Transaction processing
B. Support operation of information systems
C. Support for managerial control information systems
D. Support strategic planning of information systems
Each functional subsystem has a unique data file that is only used by the subsystem. Different activities for functions that do not require the support of processing of similar information, such as transaction processing is more important in terms of processing time is used and the file is used than strategic planning. Strategy to give processing system basis for all the support information. Conceptual structure of a SIM is to separate functional subsystems plus a database system, several common applications and general analytical models and decision models.
- Computer-based MIS
A system of computer-based management information comprising human, hardware, software, data and procedures-procedures which organizations interact to provide data and information timely to the parties within and outside the organization are competent. Modern SIM is a SIM that is computerized so that the ideas of computerization in the private or public organizations actually pleased with the improvement of the information system itself.
Basically there are 2 ways rejuvenation data:
1. Processing systems in the cluster / stack (batch processing), the system is processing system or update old data, but relatively inexpensive, transaction or record important operational activities of the organization gathered in clusters and are periodically treated to be merged with the parent file.
2. Real-time processing system (real-time processing), the system updates the data is done directly on a file or a database, the system updates the data sample is the airplane ticket booking system.
Each treatment system above has advantages and disadvantages.
Why MIS must be flexible?
If the management information systems is flexible, and related to the needs of your organization, your clients and the curriculum that you provide, so they work well and effectively. You must make sure that, whatever system you use, they are fit for purpose and can be adapted to do so, which is easy to use and allows rapid data entry with fast and flexible access for reporting purposes.
The purpose of the statement of the phrase “Humans can read magazines”
So the difference between the human and the computer in this case is a human being can undertake a process without instructions from outside, while the computer must receive instructions from brainware first then it will could execute a thing.
The Different between Batch Processing and Real-Time Processing
Every transaction in real-time is a unique process. It is not part of the transaction, although the transaction is processed in the same way. Transaction processing in real-time both in the stand-alone entry into the system and also in the handling of its output.
Real-time processing requires the master file is available for more frequent updating and reference than batch processing. The database can not be accessed at any time for batch processing.
Real-time processing has fewer errors than batch processing, the transaction data is validated and entered immediately. With batch processing, data is managed and stored before the master file is updated. Errors can occur during this step.
Rare errors in real-time processing, but they are often tolerated.
More computer operators are required in the process of real-time, because the operations are not centralized. It is more difficult to maintain a system of real-time processing of the batch system.
– Universitas MaChung, Malang